Nuclear Decommissioning: Programme
Monday 16 October 2017, Hilton Manchester Airport
09:20 Human Factors in Decommissioning Safety Cases – managing a changing safety environment
Jon Berman, Greenstreet Berman Ltd
Abstract: The purpose of a Safety Case is to demonstrate that risks are understood and suitably controlled. Within operating facilities, this is about remaining within a safe operating envelope, and maintaining risk at appropriate levels. Decommissioning presents a set of new challenges. In particular, the risk profile associated with decommissioning activities will change significantly as the activity progresses – radiological risk will ultimately decrease, but the hazards may increase at times during the programme. Consequently there is a real challenge associated with devising and maintaining a management system that is responsive not only to the changes in risk, but also to the perceptions driven by those changes and the emergent workforce behaviours. Whilst there will be a need for HF input into the design of novel tasks, there will also be a need for HF input to the design of the management arrangements.
This presentation explores current good practice concerning Leadership and Management for Safety in the context of the peculiar challenges arising from decommissioning. It will discuss how HF can contribute to the development and delivery of a management system that is responsive to the demands of a decommissioning safety case, such as by focussing on perceptions of risk, the implications for competence management, safety decision-making and learning. It reflects on the challenges this presents for HF. Whereas safe decommissioning may often be perceived as a technical challenge, it may in practice be as much an HF issue due to the need to control behaviours in a novel and changing environment.
Biography: Jon is a Chartered Ergonomist and Human Factors Specialist, with nearly 40 years’ experience across the high-hazard industries. Following a number of years in the aviation industry, he joined the nuclear industry (Central Electricity Generating Board) in 1986, just months before the accident at Chernobyl. This focused industry attention on human performance, and after a number of years firstly in the design department and then in Health and Safety within Nuclear Electric, Jon moved into consultancy. He is a Director at Greenstreet Berman.
Jon’s experience spans new build, operations, and decommissioning. His current interests span the full spectrum of nuclear human factors, but with a particular focus on Leadership and Management for Safety, Safety II, and resilience. He received the IChemE Hutchison Medal for work on Organisational Drift, and more recently the CIEHF Otto Edholm Award.
09:50 Appropriate human factors input to decommissioning safety case
Bob Hawkrigg, Cavendish Nuclear
Abstract: Decommissioning safety cases have up until now been over-pessimistic in their approach, and are often seen as hindering rather than helping progress. Terms like ‘overblown’ and ‘shelf-ware’ have often been applied. In short, a safety case is an argument, supported by a body of evidence, that something can be done adequately safely. A safety case might cover anything from a single activity to the operations of a whole facility or site.
Major advances have been made in the Decommissioning Safety Case process within Magnox over the last two years, addressing key concerns, and resulting in truly proportionate cases. The presentation will outline the main changes in approach implemented and how those impact on the requirements for inputs from Human Factors experts, together with some illustration of the benefits obtained to date.
Biography: A Principal Consultant and Chartered Engineer with over 25 years’ experience producing and supporting safety cases across the nuclear industry, my current responsibilities include leading the Hazard Management Team (North) for Cavendish Nuclear. I have a breadth of experience in safety case production for the majority of the nuclear site licensees and numerous sites across the UK, including operation at Tier 1, 2 and 3, and I’ve also applied relevant skills in projects for international and non-nuclear clients.
From September 2014 – April 2017 I led a team which changed the safety case process across Magnox, enabling delivery of proportionate decommissioning safety cases, potentially saving the customer £100m’s. This is a step change in approach and effectively now best practise for the industry.
10:20 Break & networking
10:50 Sellafield: a site under change
Jonathan Pyke, Sellafield Ltd
Abstract: The presentation provides an overview of the size of and challenge associated with reducing risk on the Sellafield site, and how in response to this, the Human Factor capability and methods are being modified and adapted.
Biography: Jon Pyke leads the Human Factors team at Sellafield, he has worked in HF on site for 10 years, leading the team for the last 3. His primary interest is safety critical operational control measures, their designation, implementation and substantiation.
11:20 Paint it black: End-to-end human factors in design and delivery for Sizewell B dry fuel store
Rob Cotterill, EDF Nuclear Generation
Abstract: Decommissioning starts with defuelling. But removing the fuel from the reactors is only the start of the process: fuel must be cooled, inspected for damage, sentenced and moved on, before more fuel can be removed. At Sizewell B (SZB), all spent fuel has been stored in the fuel building pond, with the original intention of Deep Geological Disposal. This is unlikely to be achieved before the end of station life, so an interim solution – dry storage – has been adopted.
The adopted system is proven technology in the USA, but in order to meet UK regulatory requirements it needed to undergo a degree of redesign and safety analysis, for everything from corrosion to human reliability, starting from initial fuel movements to throughout a possible 100 year lifespan. This paper discusses the human factors that were considered in justifying that spent fuel could be safely moved, dried and stored for up to 100 years.
Biography: Rob has over twenty years’ experience practicing human factors in high hazard industries. Prior to joining EDF Energy, this included nuclear fuel reprocessing and power station decommissioning, as well as work in petro-chemicals, oil and gas, transportation and hospitals. For the past few years, he has concentrated on the Dry Fuel Store project at Sizewell B power station, in Suffolk. Here, a human factors programme of work has been fully integrated into the design and safety case processes, to ensure that the end product can be safely operated to the highest levels of reliability. Since joining EDF Energy in 2011, Rob has seen the HF team double in size to the point where it is able to support the development of the next generation of nuclear power stations alongside its primary role in the Design Authority for Britain’s existing nuclear fleet.
11:50 Decommissioning Dounreay – Challenges for human factors
Christian Wilhelm, Dounreay Site Restoration Ltd
Abstract: The Dounreay nuclear site began construction in 1955 and served as the centre of the British fast reactor research programme until its third and final reactor, PFR, was shut down in 1994. This marked the end of the British fast reactor programme and the beginning of a complex and challenging decommissioning project.
Like many ageing nuclear facilities, the original design of the reactors and associated plants at Dounreay did not consider the decommissioning process. Consequently their dismantling often requires innovative engineering techniques which can place novel demands on operators. Through detailed understanding of how human limitations and characteristics interact with these decommissioning tasks, human factors can (and does) play a key role in the support of safe decommissioning.
Working in a complex environment such as the Dounreay site, the HF team is required to understand details of a project in a relatively short time. Understanding complex plants and the potential impact of human interaction can be difficult and design engineers and project managers don’t always know what information is relevant for HF. Sometimes the HF specialist gets involved in the early stages of projects e.g. concept and scheme design, unfortunately this is still not always the case and the HF team is often requested when the design is relatively fixed.
I am relatively new to the nuclear industry. My experience of having worked in other industries such as aviation, construction and manufacturing supports my understanding of many of the processes applied in nuclear industry but also provides a different perspective on how HF could be applied.
Biography: Christian Wilhelm is a Human Factors (HF) specialist working for Dounreay Site Restoration Limited. He studied Safety and Human Factors in Aviation at Cranfield University and Aviation at the University of Applied Science Zurich. Having worked in various industries such as manufacturing, construction and aviation, Christian is now supporting the HF team at Dounreay in supporting the nuclear decommissioning activities required to deliver the interim end state of the site. In his role as an HF Specialist, Christian supports projects, engineering design and safety case production. He also lends his HF expertise to incident and accident investigations.
12:20 A framework for addressing human factors challenges in manual decommissioning activities
Mel and Chris Lowe, Liv Systems
Abstract: Decommissioning activities are often characterised by facilities and processes that rely on remote operation and mechanical handling. However, many decommissioning activities also have aspects of conventional construction, dismantling and demolition. These activities, while not as sophisticated as some decommissioning processes, may present radiological hazards to the operatives carrying out these tasks.
This paper presents a framework for understanding and addressing the human factors challenges associated with manual decommissioning activities, principally those conducted manually by operatives wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) such as pressurised air-fed suits.
Biography: Chris Lowe has spent the last 25 years helping dozens of companies to deliver products and services that are safe and usable. Presently the Managing Director of Liv Systems, a Human Factors Engineering Consultancy, Chris is a chartered Fellow of the Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors, a member of the International Council on Systems Engineering, and the author of the International Engineering Safety Management Good Practice Handbook on Safety-Related Human Factors.
13:10 Lunch and networking
14:10 A survival guide to practising ergonomics in the nuclear decommissioning industry when the schedule dominates proceedings
John Lovegrove, Canary Designs
Abstract: The purpose of this talk is to pass on hints and tips for practising ergonomics in the nuclear decommissioning industry when the schedule dominates proceedings. It will include:
– Integration with the site, project and operating teams.
– Emerging approaches to design and engineering (digital manufacturing, Google engineering, skeleton design & engineering teams).
– The use of digital human manikins for improving the usability of concept designs.
– The importance of encouraging engagement between disciplines using some fairly basic participatory ergonomics techniques.
– Helping the site to develop operational concepts and the expectations on their workforce.
Biography: Human Factors Integration Manager – John is currently supporting Bouygues in the development of the Emergency Diesel Generators for Hinkley Point C and Nuclear Decommissioning Programmes for Magnox Sites Limited in the South East.
Human Factors/Ergonomics Consultant – John is executing Human Factors tasks for Bouygues Emergency Diesel Generators project (Hinkley Point C) and for Magnox on the AVDS / Resin Retrieval / Waste transfer area projects at Dungeness A. He is responsible for analysing historical operational data, CAD evaluation, and the development of Human Factors Requirements, Design Review Attendance, the collection of Human Factors Issues and the management of the issues raised.
14:40 Break & networking
15:10 An EI guide to integrating human factors into decommissioning projects
Bill Gall, Kingsley Management Ltd
Abstract: In 2010, the Energy Institute published guidance on the human and organisational factors aspects of decommissioning – currently being updated. The guidance was developed for the nuclear industry in which the decommissioning programme is many decades long. Other industries’ programmes are much shorter but many there are commonalities between them all: new tasks requiring new facilities and equipment, new procedures and bespoke training; extensive use of contractors without necessarily the in-house resource to effectively oversee their work; time pressures against project milestones, and, managing personnel in an environment of change and uncertainty – particularly regarding short and long-term job security. The new guidance will help with general and industry-specific case studies and short self-assessment checklists on key human and organisational factors.
Biography: Bill has worked in Human Factors for over 35 years; mainly in consultancy supporting nuclear, rail, chemical and oil and gas industries but also as a regulator (nuclear and offshore). His work focuses on human reliability, safety management and safety culture.
Bill is a founder member of the Energy Institute’s Human and Organisational Factors Committee which is responsible for overseeing HF projects; Bill has also developed some of its published guidance and training courses. Currently, he is working for HOFCOM on a guide to integrating HF into decommissioning project. This describes the decommissioning process, the HF issues to be considered and the methods applicable at each stage. Research for the guide included interviews with practitioners and industry contacts.
15:40 The Regulator’s view
Clive Tunley, Office for Nuclear Regulation
Abstract: The Office for Nuclear Regulation’s (ONR) mission is to provide efficient and effective regulation of the nuclear industry, holding it to account on behalf of the public. ONR ensures that licensees adequately control all hazards on site and decommissioning facilities that have reached the end of their operational life plays a significant role in reducing risk to the public. Under Licence Condition (LC) 35, duty holders are required to make and implement adequate arrangements for decommissioning and ONR works with licensee’s throughout the entire facility lifecycle to ensure compliance with the law. Clive will outline ONR’s approach to the regulation of decommissioning and how it is working with licensees to deliver high hazard risk reduction. Clive will also share some of his experiences of working in and regulating decommissioning projects highlighting areas of challenge where a more integrated approach to Human Factors could potentially deliver significant benefit.
Biography: For the last four years Clive has been a Nuclear Safety Inspector providing specialist Human Factors support to ONR’s Operating Facilities Division which regulates operating nuclear power stations and defence sites that support the UK’s fleet of nuclear-powered submarines / nuclear deterrent.
Prior to joining ONR, he gained 18 years of applied experience across all the main industrial sectors with specific focus on nuclear applications. After studying at Hull and Birmingham Universities, he started work at British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) where he delivered Human Factors Integration (HFI) to major projects and exploited (what where then) the new technologies of the internet and virtual reality to rapidly prototype designs. A period in consultancy followed where he worked on projects within the rail, oil and gas, nuclear and manufacturing sectors and provided support to various government departments. He returned to Sellafield Limited in 2008 where he was responsible for Human Factors Integration into major retrieval and decommissioning projects before joining ONR in 2013.
16:10 Human factors: What flavour are you?
Grant Hudson, Cavendish Nuclear
Abstract: Within the discipline of human factors, there is an increasingly eclectic variety of backgrounds, education, specialisms, and skill sets, and that is just in the nuclear industry. Historically, human factors in the nuclear industry has developed with a focus on safe operation of power stations, requiring the application of a specific set of HF methods and techniques. As decommissioning work grows and budgets tighten, do we need a new breed of HF practitioner or do we just need to get clever in what we ask for and how we scope ‘Human Factors’ work?
Biography: Grant is the Head of Human Factors at Cavendish Nuclear, with over 19 years of experience in the application of Human Factors and Human Factors Integration within complex systems in the nuclear, defence and aerospace industries. He has set up and chairs the Babcock International Group Human Factors Professional Practice. Grant is an advocate of a systems engineering approach, getting HF integrated from the initiation of projects based on clear requirements to ensure that end users are a fully considered component of an engineering design, thus facilitating the reduction in risk and reliability relating to human error from the start.